Lower Intestinal Tract

To stimulate the lower GI (constipation) increase bile (cholagogues) To cool (diarrhea) simple astringents (constricting)

Digesting food passes through much of the small intestine under almost total local control (and therefore subject to little stress potential from the autonomics
and CNS). Lipids are absorbed primarily
into the lymph system and carbohydrates
and proteins digested and absorbed into the portal blood. This blood drains from
capillaries in the intestines (and the spleen), into the portal system, collecting in the portal vein and then back out into capillaries in the liver…a way of isolating all intestinal venous blood from general circulation until the liver has picked through and organized these wildly varying constituents.

The digesting food (chyme) passes the lower ileum where very complex
substances are absorbed, such as B12, folic acid, some essential fatty acids, vitamins A, D and E, and the bile acids that were secreted into the duodenum for fat
emulsifying. The chyme, now exhausted of usable substances, is squirted into the
cecum of the large intestine, where the intestinal flora break down the chyme
further (now called feces) and release for absorption some folic acid and Vit. K.

The large intestine (colon) then sets about reabsorbing the sodium, chloride and water that was secreted into the food in the upper GI, along with gases made in the cecum. Mucus is added to lubricate the feces and bicarbonate and potassium
to raise the pH to alkaline. In the descending colon, formed feces are passed into the rectum (usually from reflex when the stomach is filled) and the defecation reflex (parasympathetic) is followed by conscious defecation.

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